Paper is one of the most important products ever invented by man. Widespread use of a written language would not have been possible without some cheap and practical material to write on.
The invention of paper means that more people would be educated because more books would be printed and distributed. Industry would grow because all the plans, blueprints, records and formulae it uses would be written down and saved, together with the printing press, paper provided an extremely important way to communicate knowledge.
The primary source of raw material for production of paper is vegetable fibers, obtained mainly from plants. To ensure that the forest is not depleted of these woods, there is need to provide alternative source of raw materials, this therefore leads to the invention of the process of recycling.
Proper management of solid waste is critical to the health and well-being of urban residents. In Lagos metropolis, like most cities in the developing world, several tons of municipal solid waste is left uncollected on the streets each day, clogging drains, creating feeding ground for pests that spread disease and creating a myriad of related health and infrastructural problems.
A substantial part of the urban residents in the city and suburban informal settlements of Lagos metropolis also have little or no access to solid waste collection services. This is due to lack of proper land use planning which resulted in the creation of informal settlements with narrow streets that make it difficult for collection trucks to reach many areas.
The result is that a large portion of the population is left without access to solid waste management making them particularly vulnerable.
Presently, the rate of waste generation in Lagos (with estimated population over ten million (10,000,0000) in 2012) is nine thousand (9,000) tons per day (Lagos State Waste Management Authority, LAWMA) while in Kano State, the rate is three thousand, eight hundred and forty-nine (3,849) tonnes per day.
Generally, the average rate of generation is estimated as zero point five (0.5) kilogramme per capital per day. Some of the waste generated includes paper, glass and plastic and with the use of technology, these products can be transformed into useful products again.
Recycling, which is the extraction and recovery of valuable materials from scrap or other discarded materials, is employed to supplement the production of paper. Basically, the materials are reused, or remanufactured into new products. Some products, such as glass, can be recycled or reused over and over again. This morning's newspaper can be recycled into another morning's news. Many new products are being made from recovered materials.
Post-consumer paper, or waste paper, is an important renewable raw material source for the paper industry and can contribute considerably towards reduction in its imports.
Its recycling is also important from the environmental perspective, as systematic collection and recycling of waste paper can significantly reduce the generation of solid wastes.
It has been estimated that recycling one tonne of waste paper results in a saving of seventy oercent (70%) raw material, sixty percent (60%) coal, forty-three percent (43%) energy and seventy percent (70%) water, as compared tomaking virgin paper from wood.
Finally, the recycling process also offers an opportunity for generation of additional income and employment.
According to some estimates, one tonne of recycled paper saves approximately seventeen (17) trees, two point five (2.5) barrels of oil, four thousand, one hundred (4,100) Kilowatt hours of electricity, four (4) cubic meters of landfill and thirty-one thousand, seven hundred and eighty (31,780) litres of water.
In Nigeria, pulp and paper production capacities are low due to dependence on foreign inputs. Two (2) of the three primary pulp and paper mills established in the 1960’s to 1970’s performed optimally till the 1980’s. In 1985 and 1986, capacity utilization in Nigeria paper mill reached sixty-two point three percent (62.3%) and six-one point seventeen percent (66.17%) respectively. Also by 1988, the importation of newsprint had stopped.
However in 1996, the mills stopped production leading to complete dependence on importation of paper and paper products.
This resulted in the expenditure of an estimated amount of five hundred billion naira (₦ 500,000,000,000) annually on importation of paper products. To ensure optimal pulp and paper capacities, government need to deliberately promote investment in small scale pulp and paper mills, agro residues pulping and recycling of waste paper.
Jumbo roll is the key raw materials used in the production of toilet rolls. Toilet paper, sometimes called toilet tissue in Britain, is a tissue paper product primarily used to clean the anus and surrounding area of fecal material after defecation and to clean the perineal area of urine after urination or other bodily fluid releases. It also acts as a layer of protection for the hands during these processes.
It is usually supplied as a long strip of perforated paper wrapped around a paperboard core for storage in a dispenser near a toilet. Most modern toilet paper in the developed world is designed to decompose in septic tanks, whereas some other bathroom and facial tissues are not. Toilet paper comes in various numbers of plies (layers of thickness), from one- to six-ply, with more back-to-back plies providing greater strength and absorbency.
The use of paper for hygiene has been recorded in China in the 6th century AD, with specifically manufactured toilet paper being mass-produced in the 14th century. Modern commercial toilet paper originated in the 19th century, with a patent for roll-based dispensers being made in 1883.
Toilet paper is available in several types of paper, a variety of patterns, decorations, and textures, and it may be moistened or perfumed, although fragrances sometimes cause problems for users who are allergic to perfumes.
Despite the economic recession in Nigeria in 2016 and slow recovery in 2017, retail tissue sales maintained their upward trajectory, recording an increase in volume of one percent (1%) in 2016. Sales are expected to see healthy growth over the next five years, at a five percent (5%) compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2021, to add fourteen thousand (14,000) tonnes in incremental sales.
Nigerian tissue consumption still falls significantly behind developed markets. Per capita usage in Nigeria stands at only zero point three (0.3) kilogrammes per year, compared to thirteen point five (13.5) kilogrammes in North America, eight point seven (8.7) kilogrammes in Western Europe and three point nine (3.9) kilogrammes in South Africa in 2016.
At the same time, Nigeria’s unmet potential for retail tissue alone (excluding AfH sales) is estimated to be well over six hundred thousand (600,000) tonnes.
Growth in incomes, population growth and habit formation have been the main drivers of demand over the past few years.