Coffee is one the most popular caffeinated drink, which is brewed from roasted coffee beans that are harvested from certain species of the Coffea plant. It is served both hot and cold and is prepared in a variety of ways. In addition, some of the popularly consumed coffee variants available in the market include arabica and robusta. Brazil is the world's largest producer of premium Arabica coffee and Vietnam is the world's largest producer of Robusta coffee.
All commercially grown coffee is harvested in the coffee belt region of the world, located along the equatorial zone. This is because the coffee belt provides the best suitable conditions for the coffee crop to thrive, such as rich soil, mild temperature, shaded sun, and frequent rain. Moreover, coffee is associated with health benefits, including reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, increased alertness and concentration levels, and increased energy levels, among others.
Coffee is one of the largest exported agricultural products, supporting millions of coffee plantations and coffee bean roasters. Coffee has become popular in the young population in the last decade with substantial disposable income and a higher standard of living pushed the premium coffee consumption.
Coffee Market Size was valued at USD 79.5 billion in 2022. The coffee market industry is projected to grow from USD 83.6 Billion in 2023 to USD 112.8 billion by 2030, exhibiting a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of five point twelve percent (5.12%) during the forecast period (2023 - 2030).
The demand for certified coffee products is rising, consumers are accepting single-serve coffee brew systems, and the top competitors in the market are always innovating. These are just a few of the market drivers that are driving the market.
By product type, the market is divided into:
Coffee Pods and Capsules
Based on end use, the market is bifurcated into:
Coffee was first introduced to Nigeria in the late 19th century, with the first recorded exports taking place in 1896. It was a major cash crop for farmers in the country for decades.
However, through the 21st century, the country’s coffee production has started to decline. While Nigerian farmers grew some eighty-nine thousand (89,000) of sixty (60) kilogramme bags of coffee in 2006, this figure has fallen by more than fifty percent (50%) in just fifteen (15) years.
Today, robusta accounts for ninety percent (90%) of all coffee exports in Nigeria. Robusta is grown in fourteen (14) states across the country, including Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Ekiti, Kwara, Kogi, Edo, Delta, Abia, Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Taraba, Bauchi, and Jos.
To cultivation coffee, quality seeds are required for the propagation of coffee trees. The soil choice must be taking into consideration. It must be well drained moist and loose soil rich in organic matters.
Normally coffee beds be prepared drill lines with small hoes then apply the beans along them, cover and start watering if its dry season while rain water is enough in the raining season, one (1) kilogramme of coffee beans will raise between one thousand, five hundred to three thousand (1,500 – 3,000) trees depending on best practice.
The young trees are uprooting and transferred into leather bags of three by seven (3*7) inches with rich content of organic manure for rapid growth. Then is being watered for at least twelve (12) months before it’s taken to the field.
The land must be cleared of any other crop. In forested areas trees must be removed, land cultivation properly making the soil very soft.
The trees are planted in a distance in between of at least three meters by three meters (3m*3m) and digging of holes thirty centimeters (30 cm) deep by thirty centimeters (30 cm) wide and thirty centimeters (30 cm) square.
Top soil is being mixed with organic manure and return into the holes. Then trees are planted in the center of the hole, after removing the leather which was used during nursery preparation. Watering of trees follows immediately. Then after three (3) months organic manure is added to the top of the soil surrounding the trees.
Jos Plateau do water there farms between the months of October and April of the following year. This is done once a week. But in Mambilla and Cross rivers the moisture there is adequate to maintain their trees in the dry season without any problem. This is done at least for the first five years of trees on the plantation if proper yield is expected, so there must be a good source of water for this purpose.
The coffee berries come up green, then turns into read colour and finally brown. At this point we do normally begin to pick the berries one by one or in some cases a mat is being put under the trees and we shake the trees for the berries to come down. But if we are to do wet harvesting then berries are picked and put into water for four (4) days to suck properly before they are removed either pulping or pounding with Pistol and mortar. We then dry the beans before bagging.
After bagging the coffee beans stocks are taking to our stores either collectively or by individual arrangements but in a dry and clean environments. If we want to add value to the coffee as at now, we do employ the use of manual process, the green beans are roasted, grinded and package, label and sealed for onward delivery to consumers.
Nigeria has comparative advantage in the cultivation of coffee and earn scare foreign exchange.